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In: First Legume Society Conference Book of Abstracts 2013: A Legume Odyssey. Novi Sad, Serbia, 9 - 11 May 2013. p. 214. ISBN 978-86-80417-44-8.
Úroda. 2015, 63(12), vědecká příloha časopisu, 147–150. ISSN 0139-6013
Plant Growth Regulation. Roč. 77, č. 2, s. 125–132. ISSN 0167-6903, 1573-5087. Dostupné z: doi:10.1007/s10725-015-0044-z. [WOS:000362688300003]
In order to investigate the genetic diversity present in the pea germplasm stored in the Albanian genebank, we analyzed 28 local pea genotypes of Albanian origins for 23 quantitative morphological traits, as well as 14 retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) molecular markers. The study of morphological characters carried out during three growing seasons (2010, 2011 and 2012) had the objective of characterization of traits useful in breeding pro-grams. RBIP marker analysis revealed the genetic similarity in range from 0.06 to 0.45. ANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis was used to visualize the association among different traits. Most of the quantita-tive morphological traits showed significant differences. PCA and cluster analysis (Ward’s method) carried out for morphological traits divided the local pea genotypes into three clusters. Finally, the study identified the agronomicaly important traits which will facilitate the maintenance and agronomic evaluation of the collections.
Changes in genetic diversity of peas bred in the Czech Republic and in former Czechoslovakia since the mid-20(th) century were analysed using 38 molecular marker loci, including retrotransposons and microsatellites, differentiating a total of 84 alleles. Both marker types were comparably effective in revealing the genetic diversity, with a high correlation (r = 0.81), although the pairwise genetic distances of each marker type differed. In total, 175 accessions, selected from the Czech pea gene bank collection and representing the pea cultivars collected or bred in the country, were divided into three groups according to their date of sampling or variety registration. The first group contained 70 old cultivars and landraces collected prior to 1961. The second group contained 46 cultivars released from 1961 to 1980. The third group contained 59 cultivars released between 1981 and 2004. In spite of the decline in several diversity measures, differences in allele frequencies and even allele loss in three microsatellite loci were recorded over the 70-year period, while these differences between the groups were not statistically significant. In addition, genetic heterogeneity was detected in 29 accessions (15%). This indicates that although no genetic erosion could be observed since then, it is important to monitor the genetic diversity, furthermore it highlights the vital role of germplasm collections for the crop diversity conservation.
The crossing was carried out in 2002. The selection of individual plants was repeated every year from the F2 generation. Yield tests were performed since the F4 generation, the 2 10 m2 yield trials. Breeding line SM 441/02 was included in yield trials in the green maturity (technological maturity) and was sown (sowing density: 1,1 mil of germinating seeds per hectare) with standard varieties. The homogenization process usually takes 3 - 4 years, morphologically different and less efficient lines were excluded during the process. When needed, the reselections from yield trials were carried out. Selections of resistant plants (from F2 generation) to the powdery mildew (Erysiphe pisi) were traditionally done in the field or greenhouse after artificial inoculation with Erysiphe pisi. Selections aimed at obtaining field resistance to foot-rot complex diseases (the most important diseases) in peas were carried out practically since F3 generation using tests in infected soil. The breeding lines were tested since F4 - F6 generation, the repeated tests for resistance to fusarium race 1 and race 2 were done in a the laboratory conditions. The analyses of starch, amylose and resistant starch content were carried out in all lines selected in yield trials. Chlorophyll and carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) were observed.
The distinctness of, and overlap between, pea genotypes held in several Pisum germplasm collections has been used to determine their relatedness and to test previous ideas about the genetic diversity of Pisum. Our characterisation of genetic diversity among 4,538 Pisum accessions held in 7 European Genebanks has identified sources of novel genetic variation, and both reinforces and refines previous interpretations of the overall structure of genetic diversity in Pisum. Molecular marker analysis was based upon the presence/absence of polymorphism of retrotransposon insertions scored by a high-throughput microarray and SSAP approaches. We conclude that the diversity of Pisum constitutes a broad continuum, with graded differentiation into sub-populations which display various degrees of distinctness. The most distinct genetic groups correspond to the named taxa while the cultivars and landraces of Pisum sativum can be divided into two broad types, one of which is strongly enriched for modern cultivars. The addition of germplasm sets from six European Genebanks, chosen to represent high diversity, to a single collection previously studied with these markers resulted in modest additions to the overall diversity observed, suggesting that the great majority of the total genetic diversity collected for the Pisum genus has now been described. Two interesting sources of novel genetic variation have been identified. Finally, we have proposed reference sets of core accessions with a range of sample sizes to represent Pisum diversity for the future study and exploitation by researchers and breeders.
Během řešení výzkumnéhoprojektu QI91A229 byla vytvořena linie hrachu dřeňového SM 470/02 , která se vyznačuje vysokou odolností ke komplexu chorob v polních podmínkách. Linie SM 470/02 byla vyvinuta z křížení (Moravan x B99/108). Individuální výběry rostlin byly opakovány každoročně od generace F2. Výnosové zkoušky byly prováděny od F4 generace v pokusech 3 x 10 m2. Homogenizace probíhala 3 - 4 roky. Při homogenizaci materiálu, která trvá většinou 3–4 roky, byly vyřazovány odlišné a méně výkonné linie.
Během řešení projektu QI91A229 byla vytvořena linie hrachu setého AGT 212.11 , která se vyznačuje vysokou odolností ke komplexu chorob v polních podmínkách. Linie AGT 212.11 byla vyvinuta z křížení LU 1977 x Franklin . Individuální výběry rostlin byly opakovány každoročně od generace F2. Výnosové zkoušky byly prováděny od F4 generace v pokusech 3 x 10 m2. Homogenizace probíhala 3 - 4 roky. Při homogenizaci materiálu, která trvá většinou 3–4 roky, byly vyřazovány odlišné a méně výkonné linie.

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