Mezinárodní projekty

Projekty 7., 6. a 5. rámcového programu EU.

7. Rámcový program EU

ABSTRESS - Improving the resistance of legume crops to combined abiotic and biotic stress

Start date: 2012-01-01, End date: 2016-12-31

ABSTRESS applies combined, integrated systems biology and comparative genomics approaches to conduct a comprehensive study of the gene networks implicated in the interaction of drought stress and Fusarium infection in legumes. It uses Medicago truncatula as a model to rapidly identify characteristics for introgression into elite pea varieties and a field test of their performance against existing commercial varieties. The project will demonstrate the advantages of applying advanced phenotyping methods for the generation of improved varieties of a commercial crop. Legumes have been chosen as the preferred study crop because they are susceptible to a combination of abiotic and biotic stresses. By increasing their cultivation, they offer the greatest opportunity to reduce the generation of greenhouse gases from agriculture and hence contribute to the efforts to control climate change. Therefore ABSTRESS aligns with the European Strategic Research Agenda 2025. ABSTRESS will achieve a step change in “sustainability in agriculture” by undertaking breeding research that seeks to develop varieties having improved resistance to a combination of biotic and abiotic stresses. The novelty of the project is demonstrated by the generation, identification and understanding new genetic materials; addressing commercial requirements for the development of a successful new crop variety by utilising SME expertise; testing new in a range of growing conditions; addressing impact on Fusarium in other crops; have application to crop breeding generally; incorporating drought stress which is likely to be a major factor for climate change; developing high throughput molecular phenotyping, to gain a step change in the speed of the breeding cycle. Thus, this well structured, innovative research can lead to ground breaking achievements in plant breeding. These will help to ameliorate climate change and develop the tools to mitigate their effects on a sustainable food /feed supply chain.

 

LEGATO - LEGumes for the Agriculture of TOmorrow

Start date: 2014-01-01, End date: 2017-12-31

The project has been conceived to promote the culture of grain legumes in Europe by identifying priority issues currently limiting grain legume cultivation and devising solutions in term of novel varietal development, culture practices, and food uses. LEGATO will develop tools and resources to enable state of the art breeding methodology and to exploit fully the breadth of genetic resources available. The project will focus on a small number of key characters not previously explored in depth and complementary to other ongoing European and national projects. These topics covered include disease and pest resistance, where in addition to marker development for major fungal and viral pathogens, a focus on emerging insect pests is planned. The impact of end-of-season drought and heat stress on the rhizobial symbiosis, and its consequences for plant performance, will be studied. Two characters that can influence grain legume yield, autofertility and number of flowering nodes, will be investigated. The potential for improving legume nutritional and organoleptic quality by identification of desirable traits and innovative selection methods will be investigated. LEGATO will conceive sustainable legume-based cropping systems adapted to different pedoclimatic zones, respecting local constraints. The project has been constructed around the participation of commercial partners including SMEs in the areas of marker development, plant breeding, and legume food processing, who will benefit from the advances made in these areas in LEGATO. Promising legume varieties and cropping systems will be tested at a series of pan-european sites to favour the widest possible take-up in agriculture, and the partners potentially concerned will participate in a stakeholder forum convened regularly during the project.

 

MULTIHEMP - Multipurpose hemp for industrial bioproducts and biomass (FP7)

Start date: 2012-09-01, End date: 2017-02-28

Hemp is a sustainable high yielding crop well adapted to most European conditions, with advantageous environmental and agronomical characteristics. Traditionally cultivated for the fibres, seeds and psychoactive substances, it is now considered an ideal crop to produce innovative biomaterials. Once a key industrial crop for fibre, hemp production declined in the last century and was displaced by cotton and synthetic fibres. This explains why hemp has not been subject to the intensive breeding that has driven great improvements in major food crops in the last 50 years. However, cotton has one of the worst environmental footprints of any crop and there is renewed interest in hemp because it requires less water and agrochemicals and provides fibre and oil of superior quality. In the frame of multi-hemp, we will use cutting-edge genomic approaches to achieve rapid targeted improvements in hemp productivity and raw material quality for end-user requirements, whilst also advancing scientific understanding of gene-to-trait relationships in this crop. This work will be combined with innovations in agronomy, harvesting and processing methods to generate sustainable products from improved varieties. The project will include demonstration activities such as field trial and process scale up. The economic and environmental implications of each innovation will be assessed so as to maximise economic return and increase sustainability. This project brings together leading research groups with a vibrant group of industrial participants working from the level of molecular genetics through to end product demonstration. Our ambition is to develop an integrated hemp-based biorefinery in which improved feedstock is subject to efficient and modular processing steps to provide fibre, oil, construction materials, fine chemicals and biofuels using all components of the harvested biomass, and generating new opportunities within the developing knowledge based bioeconomy.

 

FP7-NMP-2007 –SME-1 BIOAGROTEX - Development of new agrotextiles from renewable resources and with a tailored biodegradability

řešitel: Mr Luc Ruys (CENTEXBEL, Technologiepark 7, 9052 Zwijnaarde, Belgium)
spoluřešitel: Ing. Marie Bjelková (Agritec, Šumperk, Czech Republic)

Start date 1. 10. 2008 – End date 30. 9. 2012

The basic objective of the project is to develop new high end textile products, based for 100% on natural fibres and bio-based or biopolymers. The development of such products perfectly fits with the European objectives to fulfil the Kyoto protocol and to reduce the emission of “Green House Gases” by 2020 with at least 20 %, thanks to the reduced use of non renewable materials resources based on fossil fuels.

The project also corresponds to “The Strategic Research Agenda” outlined by “The European Technology Platform for the Future of Textiles and Clothing”. The session meetings of the Thematic Expert Group (TEG 1): “New speciality fibres & fibre composites for innovative textile products” gave birth to the project idea and initiated the preliminary set-up of the consortium.

Biorenewable polymers are in full development and are at the moment mainly used for low end products for instance packaging material and disposables.

“The requested characteristics and “life-time” in these applications are very low.”. Fast biodegradation under industrial composting conditions is requested after use. An important up-grade of these polymers can be given if they are applied in end products that have a longer lifetime and in which the intrinsic technological properties of the polymers are expressed and valorised. Agrotextiles are one of the potentially interesting endapplications in which the technological advantages of the biorenewable polymer systems can come to expression, creating at the same time an exemplary case for future developments in other areas.

 

6. Rámcový program EU

 

TOWARDS - Migrating networks from a producer towards a market orientation within the agri-food sector

Start date: 2007-02-01 End date: 2009-01-31
Project status: Completed

TOWARDS is a 24-month SSA project, whose main objective is to support, promote and rigorously research the migration of agri-food SMEs networks/associations from a producer & regional focus (traditional net./assoc) towards a market & European orientation (innovative net./assoc): from fork to farm approach. TOWARDS aims to help implement the ERA by strengthening main Food Quality and Safety Priority's ''from fork to farm" approach, directly relevant to agri-food SMEs net/assoc, in regions of Europe stimulating interregional co-operation with particular attention given to innovation aspects. Market & client oriented agri-food net/assoc. pull SMEs to more rapidly assimilate innovation, what encourages growth and strengthens the competitiveness of the food sec tor in European and global markets.

The goal of the project justifies its European nature, since best practices and experience is best gathered from similar networks in other countries. The project enrols 36 agri-food SMEs net./assoc.(18 traditional + 18 innovative), top-level experts including representatives of agri-food demand, regional & national public agencies, policy makers and professionals servicing agri-food sector. Firstly TOWARDS creates a Migration toolkit to evaluate 18 traditional agri-food net/ assoc. enrolled and strengthens them supporting their migration into becoming more market & client oriented (development of Migration plans & strategies).

Further networks strengthening is facilitated through the exchange of best practices previously identified in 18 innovative net/assoc. enrolled. Secondly, TOWARDS creates an Agri- food Web Platform, sustainable beyond the project (Business plan) that involves and bring together around shared goals a range of agri-food players, carrying knowledge content and business information for agri-food networks and supporting their re-focusing towards clients. The project has an ambitious set of awareness creation & dissemination activities at regional, national & European level

 

5. Rámcový program EU

 

QLK5-CT-2002-02307 Faba bean breeding for sustainable agriculture (EUFABA)

From 2003-02-01 to 2006-11-30

řešitel: Dr Diego Rubiales (Institute of Sustainable Agriculture –CSIC, Córdoba, Spain)
spoluřešitel: Ing. Miroslav Hýbl, Ph.D.

Bob obecný je luskovina s velkou tradicí a pěstitelským potenciálem v celé Evropě. V poslední době však zájem o jeho pěstování značně stagnuje. Cílem společného evropského projektu je této plodině její někdejší význam a to především: vyhodnocením významu současných a historických odrůd bobu pro trvale udržitelné zemědělství, vývojem nových screeningových metod pro identifikaci biotických stresů a rezistenci k houbovým chorobám, vypracováním studie zimovzdornosti a suchovzdornosti s předpokladem trojnásobně vyššího výnosu u ozimých forem, vývojem rychlých a levných metod pro stanovení obsahu antinutričních látek, vývojem molekulárních map v RIL populacích bobu a QTL ovlivňujících rezistenci, nutriční faktory a výnos a využitím přístupu "Association Mapping" k identifikaci vztahů mezi markery a fenotypovými znaky rostliny bez použití mapování populací.

Koordinátorem tohoto projektu je Dr Diego Rubiales z Institute of Sustainable Agriculture ze Španělska. Řešitelské konsorcium se skládá z 13 členů ze Špěnělska, Francie, Německa, Velké Británie, Itálie, Dánska, Rakouska, Estonska a České republiky.

 

4. Rámcový program EU

Program INCO-COPERNICUS

Carbohydrate Biotechnology Network for Grain Legumcs

IC15-CT96-1007  CABINET – Network pro biotechnologie sacharidů u luskovin
Doba řešení: 1997 – 2000
řešitel: Dr. Cliff HEDLEY (John Innes Centre, Norwich, U.K.)
spoluřešitel: RNDr. Miroslav GRIGA, CSc.

Projekt CABINET – Carbohydrate Biotechnology Network for Grain Legumes byl součástí IV. rámcového programu EC INCO-COPERNICUS a účastnily se jej instituce z Velké Británie, Švédska, Dánska, Itálie, Španělska, Polska, Rumunska, Maďarska, Bulharska, Ruska, Ukrajiny, Estonska, Moldávie a České republiky. Společnost AGRITEC se v projektu soustředila na problematiku škrobu a amylózy s dlouhodobou perspektivou tvorby odrůdy tzv. amylózního hrachu jako suroviny pro výrobu biodegradovatelných plastů. Byla optimalizována mikroanalytická metoda stanovení škrobu, amylózy a amylopektinu v semenech hrachu, která byla následně využita pro kalibraci přístroje NIR ke stanovení obsahových látek suchou cestou. Uvedeným způsobem bylo analyzováno cca 600 genotypů hrachu ze světové kolekce a vytipovány parentální komponenty pro hybridizační program. Byly definovány korelace mezi obsahem škrobu, amylózy a N-látek v semeni hrachu, vliv lokality na akumulaci škrobu a amylózy a rovněž topofyzická distribuce akumulace v jednotlivých patrech rostliny hrachu. Byla optimalizována metodika stanovení aktivity starch-branching enzymu a detekce jeho isoforem. Pro modelové studie byla využívána somatická embryogeneze in vitro a zygotická embryogeneze in planta. Optimalizované metody analýzy škrobu a amylózy jsou využívány jako nedílná součást šlechtitelského programu u hrachu. Výsledky řešení byly publikovány časopisecky (4), v knižní monografii (2) a prezentovány na vědeckých konferencích (6).

 
IC15-CT96-096 The molecular and cellular biology of direct somatic embryogenesis in ALFALFA

Doba řešení: 1997–2000
řešitel: Prof. Malcolm C. Elliott (De Montfort University, Leicester, U.K.)
spoluřešitel: RNDr. Miroslav GRIGA, CSc.

Projekt Molecular and cellular biology of direct somatic embryogenesis in alfalfa byl součástí IV. rámcového programu EU INCO-COPERNICUS a účastnilo se jej 8 akademických institucí z Velké Británie, Francie, Belgie, Řecka, Bulharska, Maďarska a ČR) a jeden industriální partner (Agritec, ČR). Hlavním úlohou spol. Agritec v projektu byla aplikace systému přímé a nepřímé somatické embryogeneze na velkozrnné luskoviny, s důrazem na hrách. Byly optimalizovány protokoly obou způsobů regenerace, včetně jednotlivých kroků (indukce a iniciace, vývoj, maturace, konverze) a rozsáhlého genotypového screeningu, popsána anatomie a morfologie procesu a studována akumulace zásobních látek během vývoje somatických embryí. Bylo zahájeno studium genetického založení embryogenní kompetence a selekce vysoce embryogenních genotypů prostřednictvím rekurentní selekce. Systém přímé a nepřímé somatické embryogeneze u hrachu byl aplikován pro studium somaklonální variability, selekce in vitro na rezistenci vůči houbovým patogenům hrachu a genetické transformace hrachu. Výsledky řešení byly publikovány časopisecky (5), v knižních monografiích (1) a prezentovány na vědeckých konferencích (19). Problematika projektu byla rovněž předmětem dvou obhájených diplomových prací. Vypracované experimentální protokoly a získaný rostlinný materiál (somaklony po selekci in vitro) jsou průběžně využívány ve šlechtitelských programech společnosti Agritec.